magnifying glassScientifically relevant papers and articles.

EL31 - "Controller HIL Testing of Real-Time Distributed Frequency Control for Future Power Systems", IEEE - ISGT Europe 2016, Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 9-12

E. Guillo-Sansano, M.H. Syed, A.J. Roscoe, G. Burt (USTRATH), Mark Stanovich and Karl Schoder Center for Advance Power Systems, Florida State University





With the evolution of power system components and structures driven mainly by renewable energy technologies, reliability of the network could be compromised with traditional control methodologies. Therefore, it is crucial to thoroughly validate and test future power system control concepts before deployment. In this paper, a Controller Hardware in the Loop (CHIL) simulation for a real-time distributed control algorithm concept developed within the ELECTRA IRP project is performed. CHIL allows exploration of many real-world issues such as noise, randomness of event timings, and hardware design issues that are often not present on a simulation-only system. Octave has been used as the programming language of the controller in order to facilitate the transition between software simulation and real-time control testing. The distributed controller achieved frequency restoration with a collaborative response between different controllers very fast after the unbalanced area is located.

EL30 - "Predictive Control for Multi-Market Trade of Aggregated Demand Response using a Black Box Approach", IEEE - ISGT Europe 2016, Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 9-12

Pamela MacDougall and Bob Ran (TNO), George B. Huitema (University of Groningen), Geert Deconinck
(University of Leuven)





Aggregated demand response for smart grid services is a growing field of interest especially for market participation. To minimize economic and network instability risks, flexibility characteristics such as shiftable capacity must be known. This is traditionally done using lower level, end user, device specifications. However, with these large numbers, having lower level information, has both privacy and computational limitations. Previous studies have shown that black box forecasting of shiftable capacity, using machine learning techniques, can be done accurately for a homogeneous cluster of heating devices. This paper validates the machine learning model for a heterogeneous virtual power plant. Further it applies this model to a control strategy to offer flexibility on an imbalance market while maintaining day ahead market obligations profitably. It is shown that using a black box approach 89% optimal economic performance is met. Further, by combining profits made on imbalance market and the day ahead costs, the overall monthly electricity costs are reduced 20%.

EL28 - "Optimal PMU Placement for Topological Observability of Power System: Robust Measurement Design in the Space of Phasor Variables", IEEE - ISGT Europe 2016, Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 9-12

M. V. Khokhlov ISE&EPN, Komi SC, A. Obushevs, I. Oleinikova, A. Mutule (IPE)





This paper presents a new mixed-integer linear programming formulation of the optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement problem when considering the topological observability of the power system. Different from other formulations, decision variables are associated with phasor measurements, but not with PMUs. This approach makes it easy to take into account the availability of PMU measuring channels, effect of zero-injection bus, possible system contingencies like single PMU or branch loss, as well as gross error occurrence, and offers flexibility in specifying the objective function. Paper describes a presolve technique that makes the formulation more compact and tighter. Numerical results on IEEE standard test systems are presented and reveal the existence of the PMU placements which ensure topological observability, but fail to meet numerical observability.

EL29 - "Toward Coordinated Robust Allocation of Reserve Policies for a Cell-based Power System", IEEE - ISGT Europe 2016, Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 9-12

Junjie Hu (DTU), Kai Heussen (DTU), Bert Claessens (Restore), Lei Sunx (ZheJiang University), Reinhilde D'Hulst (Vito)





Conventional regulation reserves have fixed participation factors and are thus not well suited to utilize differentiated capabilities of ancillary service providers. This study applies linear decision rules-based (LDR) control policies, which effectively adapt the present participation factor in dependence of the imbalance signal of previous time steps. The LDR-policies are centrally computed using a robust optimization approach which takes into account both the covariances of historic imbalance signals and the operational flexibility of ancillary service providers. The concept is then extended to the cooperation of multiple cells. Two illustrating examples are presented to show the functioning of the proposed LDR method.

EL27 - "Towards modeling future energy infrastructures – the ELECTRA system engineering approach", IEEE - ISGT Europe 2016, Ljubljana, Slovenia, October 9-12

M. Uslar (OFFIS), K. Heussen (DTU)




Within this contribution, we provide an overview based on previous work conducted in the ELECTRA project to come up with a consistent method for modeling the ELECTRA WoC approach according to the methods established with the M/490 mandate of the European Commission. We will motivate the use of the IEC 62559 use case template as well as needed changes to cope particularly with the aspects of controller conflicts and Greenfield technology modeling. From the original envisioned use of the standards, we show a possible transfer on how to properly deal with a Greenfield approach when modeling.